Expressing concern about the lack of focus on adaptation efforts, the BASIC countries (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) have requested the implementation of the Global Adaptation Goal, which is referred to in the Paris Agreement.
Meeting at the office of the Indian delegation to COP26 (the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties, as the Glasgow conference is officially called), the BASIC countries also demanded immediate discussion of setting a new target for climate finance to be given to developed countries for the period after 2025.
“… Developed countries should… initiate discussions at COP26 on a formal, transparent and open process to establish a new collective quantitative financing target under the Paris Agreement…”, the BASIC countries said in a statement.
Developed countries have a responsibility to provide money and technology to developing countries to help them cope with the effects of climate change. They promised to raise $ 100 billion for this purpose every year starting in 2020, but a year after the deadline, the money has not been mobilized. Developed countries have pushed back the deadline from 2020 to 2023.
Under the Paris Agreement, developed countries are also authorized to increase the amount of US $ 100 billion to a higher amount by 2025. African countries and a group of developing countries, including India and China, said the new amount should be at least US dollars. 1.3 trillion a year. Discussions on a decision on this new minimum amount have not yet begun. The BASIC countries have insisted that this process begin at the COP itself.
Lack of promised money is just one of the reasons developing countries are worried about. Another is a lack of focus on adaptation, including a lack of money for adaptation efforts.
The world is already facing climate disasters of increasing frequency and intensity, and the situation is expected to worsen even further, even if attempts to keep the global temperature rise within 1.5 degrees Celsius since pre-industrial times are successful. Thus, adaptation is vital, especially in least developed countries and small island states, which are most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.
The 2015 Paris Agreement spoke of the need for a global adaptation target, just as there is a global mitigation target of cutting greenhouse gas emissions deep enough to cause global temperatures to rise in the range of 2 or 1.5 degrees Celsius. from pre-industrial times.
But little has changed on this front, primarily due to the difficulty of setting an adaptation goal. Unlike mitigation efforts, which provide global benefits, adaptation benefits are local or regional. There are no uniform global criteria by which adaptation goals can be set and measured.
Various approaches have been proposed to describe the goal of adaptation, but no consensus has been reached. One of them is trying to define the global goal of adaptation in monetary terms. For example, developing countries consistently require at least 50 percent of the pledged US $ 100 billion per year for adaptation. This can be a measurable adaptation goal. While the $ 100 billion has yet to be mobilized, only about 20 percent of the climate finance that has been provided so far has gone to adaptation projects. Some other language suggests that each country prepares and submits a national adaptation plan. Together, these plans can become an adaptation target, and progress on each of these plans can be measured and measured.
The BASIC countries have not identified any specific indicator to define the global adaptation goal. They just want the discussion on the definition of the adaptation goal to start as soon as possible.
“Adaptation is not receiving the balanced and focused attention it deserves in the UNFCCC process. It is very important to develop a work program for the implementation of the Global Adaptation Goal, ”BASIC said in a statement.
BASIC countries also reminded developed countries of their unfulfilled promises until 2020 and stressed that they must be made up for. Many developed countries have not met their emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, which predates the Paris Agreement, which expired last year. Most countries have defaulted on their commitments to provide finance and technology to developing countries.
“… Trust between Parties is key to the success of the multilateral process, and that climate change can only be successfully addressed through a collective multilateral response. Negotiation history and past commitments should not be forgotten or erased. In this spirit, it is imperative to ensure that discussions on action and support until 2020 are not relegated to the background in this COP, ”BASIC countries said.
“Progress on the 2020 agenda should be a key criterion for COP26’s success. Developed countries must meet their 2020 commitments in terms of mitigation, adaptation and means of implementation, without shifting any burden or responsibility to developing countries. Developed countries must take urgent action to close implementation gaps by 2020 by 2023, ”they said.